Geology is the study of the composition, structure and origin of the earth and its components. It is a vast field of science and major branches include Structural Geology, Mineralogy, Planetology, Geomorphology, Geological Engineering, Petrology, Hydrology, Structural Geology, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Marine Geology, Seismology, Paleontology, and Volcanology.
Many leading universities offer post graduate courses such as M.A. in Geology and M. Sc. in Geology. Doctoral programmes are also available in geology and specializations offered in all major branches as well in the areas such as Mining, Environmental Education, and Environmental Law.
Geologists are largely employed by Geological Survey Organizations, Ground Water Board Authorities, Oil and Mining Companies, Mineral Exploration Authorities, Environment Protection Groups, Disaster Management Authorities and so on. Career profiles are available as Geologists, Meteorologists, Mineralogists, Geographers, Meteorologists, Geomorphologists, Marine Geologists, Geophysicists, Geochemists, and Hydrologists, depending on the specializations of the applicant. Job nature also varies depending on the specialization of the applicant. Hydrologists focus on the water component and water cycles on the earth’s surface while Marine Geologists are supposed to study the marine ecosystems of the earth. Geochemists study the chemical elements found on the earth’s surface while Mineralogists are interested in earth’s minerals. Geophysicists focus on the energy related aspects of the earth.
The profession of a geologist is heavily research oriented. Both field surveys and laboratory work are essential parts of this job. Field surveys are required to collect the relevant data pertaining to geological projects such as assessing the density of the earth, exploring the oil and mineral wealth of the earth, analyzing the mineral composition of the soil, studying the possibility of natural disasters such as earthquakes etc. These data are analyzed closely in the laboratories to draw the final results. Results are then presented before the higher authority and decisions and follow up actions are taken based on these results.